Only a few studies have examined the effect of prostanoids
Only a few studies have examined the effect of prostanoids on cardiac fibroblasts. Therefore, this study examines the effect of PGE2 on cardiac fibroblast proliferation and tests the hypothesis that PGE2 causes cardiac fibroblast proliferation via alterations of Nitazoxanide regulatory molecules and the signaling pathways that control this pathway.
Materials and methods
Discussion The present study demonstrates the expression of EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors in early passage cardiac fibroblasts and shows that PGE2 causes cell cycle progression. This effect appears to be mediated via the EP1 receptor, involves activation of both p42/p44 MAPK and Akt, and is associated with increased levels of cyclin D3. Although the absolute changes in proliferation observed in this study are small, it is important to recognize that these studies were performed after 24h of stimulation and with a defined number of cells. However, the fact that PGE2 increased the number of cells in S phase by 25% in 24h is of pathophysiological importance in diseases such as myocardial infarction where these changes in fibroblast proliferation would potentially increase collagen production. Indeed, our in vitro results showing that PGE2 stimulates collagen type I mRNA in cardiac fibroblasts supports such an idea. Previously, other investigators have used either fibroblast cell lines or pulmonary fibroblasts to examine the effect of PGE2 on cell growth. In contrast to our present results, Liu et al.  demonstrated an anti-proliferative effect of PGE2 in pulmonary fibroblasts. Similar studies by Moore et al.  confirmed the above findings and implicated the EP2 receptor using fibroblasts from EP2−/− mice. Recently, the same group described that PGE2 has a biphasic effect on lung fibroblast proliferation and that suppression or stimulation of proliferation is determined by the concentration of PGE2 and the involvement of either EP2 or EP3 receptors, respectively . Ex vivo studies using human airway smooth muscle cells also demonstrated that PGE2 and a prostacyclin analog inhibited serum-induced proliferation . Thus, the response to PGE2 appears to be cell type specific and may depend on which type of EP receptor is expressed, since the four EP receptors are linked to different signaling pathways. Indeed, in a recent report, Huang et al.  suggested that PGE2 acts through its EP2 receptor in pulmonary fibroblasts to stimulate cAMP and that inhibition of collagen type I occurs via activation of protein kinase A. Additionally, they also described inhibition of lung fibroblast proliferation, similar to that of Liu et al. . Recently, Sanchez and Moreno  examined the role of EP1 and EP4 receptors in serum-stimulated 3T6 fibroblast cell cycle progression and proliferation. These studies differ from ours in that we employed serum-free experimental conditions so that any effect of PGE2 was not obscured by the presence of multiple growth factors. In the aforementioned study, both an EP1 antagonist and an EP4 antagonist were able to inhibit proliferation, although the authors suggested that different mechanisms were responsible for the effect of each compound. Sanchez et al. suggested that whereas the EP1 antagonist reduced expression of cyclin D and E presumably by decreased intracellular calcium, the EP4 antagonist employed a different mechanism, decreasing expression of cyclin A. Several years later, these authors used the same fibroblast model to report that an EP3 receptor agonist caused S phase arrest and fibroblast growth inhibition . The results of Sanchez and Moreno\'s study confirm older reports in which an EP1 agonist but not an EP3 agonist was able to stimulate DNA synthesis in NIH3T3 cells . Our results with sulprostone and the specific EP1 antagonist support a role for EP1 in the stimulation of cyclin D and fibroblast proliferation. However, whether increases in intracellular calcium are responsible for the increased proliferation observed in our study are unknown. In contrast, our results with stimulation of cAMP production using forskolin would exclude an EP2/EP4 mediated effect.