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  • In conclusi http www apexbt com media diy images

    2021-09-14

    In conclusion, Glu transactions in glia cells are mediated through Glu receptors and transporters. From a biochemical perspective, the specificity of the cascades has started to be elucidated. A model of our present findings is depicted in Fig. 6.
    Acknowledgements This work was supported by Grants from Conacyt-Mexico (79502 and 123625) and Fundación Pandea-Mexico to A.O. Z.M.-L is supported by Conacyt-Mexico fellowship. The technical assistance of Luis Cid and Blanca Ibarra is acknowledged.
    Introduction The acidic amino 133 2 receptor l-glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, where it participates in forms of neuronal communication that range from standard fast synaptic transmission, to the more complex signal processing required in development, learning, memory, and response to injury. The ability of l-glutamate to participate in such a diverse group of activities is largely a function of the broad assortment of ionotropic (ion channel-coupled) and metabotropic (second messenger system-coupled) receptors that can be activated by this excitatory amino acid (EAA; Hollmann & Heinemann, 1994, Borges & Dingledine, 1999, Schoepp, 2001, Conn, 2003, Mayer & Armstrong, 2004). Ironically, the physiological roles of l-glutamate are counterbalanced by its potential to over-activate these same ionotropic receptors and trigger a series of destructive molecular cascades that can ultimately lead to neuronal loss. Referred to as excitotoxicity, glutamate-mediated neuronal pathology is thought to contribute to the CNS damage observed in both acute injury and chronic neurological disorders (for review, see Choi, 1994, Rothman & Olney, 1995, Mattson, 2003, Olney, 2003). Thus, the amount of extracellular l-glutamate surrounding the EAA receptors must be carefully regulated: too little can lead to the interruption of critical signaling, while too much can lead to the initiation of excitotoxic pathways. It is within the context of this balance that considerable attention has focused on the transporter-mediated uptake of l-glutamate. As a consequence of efficiently clearing l-glutamate from the synaptic cleft and sequestering it intracellularly in either neurons or glia, glutamate transport systems have the potential to influence the termination of the excitatory signal, access of transmitter to extrasynaptic receptors, recycling of the transmitter, 133 2 receptor and the protection of neurons from excitotoxic injury. In the instance of the glutamate system, transport is particularly relevant because an extracellular enzyme that can rapidly metabolize the transmitter, such as is exemplified by acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase, is lacking. A number of different membrane transporters have been identified that are capable of regulating the flux of l-glutamate into and out of cells. These systems are commonly differentiated based upon their ionic dependence and include both the sodium-independent system xc− (Baker et al., 2002, Patel et al., 2004) and the sodium-dependent system XAG− (Palacin et al., 1998). It is generally accepted that the majority of glutamate transport in the CNS, particularly as related to excitatory transmission, is mediated by this latter group of high-affinity, sodium-dependent, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Within the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) nomenclature, the EAATs are categorized in the solute carrier gene (SLC) series within the SLC1 family that also includes the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 (Hediger et al., 2004). Given the physiological and pathological implications now ascribed to the proper functioning of these uptake systems, it is not surprising that there is a growing interest in transport and, consequently, an increasing number of salient review articles on many aspects of EAAT biology including their molecular biology, distribution, regulation, structure, mechanism, function, and pharmacology (Bergles et al., 1999, Bridges et al., 1999, Fairman & Amara, 1999, Attwell, 2000, Danbolt, 2001, Kanner et al., 2001, Robinson, 2002, Gonzalez & Robinson, 2004a, Maragakis & Rothstein, 2004). The focus of the present review is on the pharmacology of the EAATs and, in particular, the potential to delineate those chemical properties that differentiate the process of binding and translocation (i.e., substrates from non-substrate inhibitors), as well as strategies to develop glutamate analogues that act selectively among the various EAAT subtypes.